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crocidolite chemical composition

Also see ASBESTOS FLOOR TILE COMPOSITION for an example of distinguishing between use of chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos in products. Crocidolite asbestos, the blue asbestos, is a fibrous amphibole with the chemical composition Na 2 Fe 5 [Si 8 O 22](OH) 2. CROCIDOLITE, TREMOLITE, ACTINOLITE, AND ANTHOPHYLLITE) Asbestos was considered by previous IARC Working Groups in 1972, 1976, and 1987 (IARC, ... by their chemical composition. In this study, the mass change is 2.5 mass% (Fig. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION 4.1 CHEMICAL IDENTITY Asbestos is a generic term for a group of six naturally-occurring, fibrous silicate minerals that have been widely used in commercial products. 3 The high component of iron is characteristic of crocidolite. Quick NavTop About Crocidolite Chemical Properties Synonyms Other Languages Varieties Common Associates Other Information References Internet Links Localities Locality List . (NIOSH, 2008). 4c). 1980).In addition, in contrast to crocidolite, quartz did not increase the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or aneuploidy in V79 fibroblasts at exposures as high as 15 μg ml −1 (Price-Jones et al. The federal Bureau of Mines provided five test materials--amosite, short- and long-fiber chrysotile, crocidolite, and nonfibrous tremolite--to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) for studies on the biological effects of orally ingested asbestos-related materials. Learn the chemical asbestos properties of and general asbestos composition that make it so useful in so many commercial applications and products. It occurs in banded iron formations as the asbestiform variety crocidolite (blue asbestos). It is based on an infinite silica sheet (Si2O5) in which all the silica tetrahedra point one way. Its general chemical formula is 3Na 2 O6FeO2Fe 2 O 3 16- Si0 2 11 2 0. The chemical formulas of asbestos minerals are idealized. Chrysotile accounts for more than 90% of the asbestos used worldwide, but its capacity to induce malignant mesothelioma is still debated. The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) classifies the asbestiform varieties of the following minerals as asbestos: Blue color sets it apart from other asbestiform minerals. In 219. The energy dispersive x ray analysis showed that all samples contained relatively high levels of Fe and Na, similar to that of UICC (Union Internationale Contre le Cancer) crocidolite. Its Mohs hardness is 5.0–6.0, and its specific gravity is 3.0–3.4. Crocidolite asbestos, which is also known as blue asbestos due to the color of its fibers, occurs in South Africa, as well as in Bolivia and Australia. It is one of the more hazardous asbestos minerals. minerals may have the same chemical formula as the ‘asbestiform’ variety. Department Environmental, Earth, & Atmospheric Sciences Minerals • Naturally Occurring - minerals must be formed ... Crocidolite Birefringence – color changes under crossed-polars due to retardation Biotite 8.17.4.2.1 Genotoxicity. Asbestos, crocidolite - >99.99 12001-28-4 Ingredient name % CAS number There are no additional ingredients present which, within the current knowledge of the supplier and in the concentrations applicable, are classified as hazardous to health and hence require reporting in this section. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in SERPs The other types all belong to the amphibole group of minerals and include the fibrous forms of anthophyllite, amosite (grunerite), crocidolite (riebeckite), tremolite, and actinolite. Tremolite, Actinolite, and Anthophyllite are rare. General Riebeckite Information : Chemical Formula: [ ]Na2(Fe++3Fe+++2)Si8O22(OH)2 : Composition: Molecular Weight = 935.90 gm Sodium 4.91 % Na 6.62 % Na 2 O: Iron 29.84 % Fe 23.03 % FeO / 17.06 % Fe 2 O 3: Silicon 24.01 % Si 51.36 % SiO 2: Hydrogen 0.22 % H 1.92 % H 2 O: Oxygen 41.03 % O: 100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE Similarly to the other types of asbestos in the amphibole group, it has long, straight, and friable fibers. It is one of the more hazardous asbestos minerals. The main chemical composition of Da-yao crocidolite is ferromagnesian minerals. The blue asbestos occurs only in very few localities and is mined only in large quantities in South Africa. It has a greater tensile strength than chrysotile asbestos but is much less heat-resistant, fusing to black glass at relatively low temperatures. Generally, depending on the authors, thermal decomposition of crocidolite asbestos takes place in a wide temperature range from 400 to 900 300–450C, which … CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION 4.1 CHEMICAL IDENTITY Asbestos is a generic term for a group of six naturally-occurring, fibrous silicate minerals that have been widely used in commercial products. It is a hydrous magnesium silicate with the chemical composition of Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4. K.E. Of the amphibole silicate minerals, amosite and crocidolite occur only in … Mineral and/or Locality . Magnetite is com­ monly reported in association with the crocidolite from these … The federal Bureau of Mines provided five test materials--amosite, short- and long-fiber chrysotile, crocidolite, and nonfibrous tremolite--to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) for studies on the biological effects of orally ingested asbestos-related materials. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The chemical compositions vary somewhat, depending on deposit location, from the idealized composition of magnesium disilicon pentadioxide tetrahydoxide. Methods: Typical chemical composition and dimensionality metrics (aspect ratios) were obtained and combined with mesothelioma potency factors estimated by Hodgson and Darnton method for Quebec chrysotile, South Africa amosite, South Africa and Australian crocidolite, Russian anthophyllite, Libby amphiboles, and Turkey erionite. For amosite and crocidolite, mesothelioma appears at a considerably lower burden than does asbestosis. composition of the crocidolite asbestos type, and its thermal behaviour is still poorly understood. Amosite is actually an acronym for Asbestos Mines of South Africa. The Crocidolite variety is a type of asbestos, and is sometimes also referred to as "blue asbestos". Asbestos minerals fall into two groups or classes, serpentine asbestos and … Crocidolite asbestos consists of bundles of fibers 0.03 to 0.5 μm in diameter that are slightly rotated with respect to each other. It forms a solid solution series with magnesioriebeckite. A meta description is an HTML tag in the HTML code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) classifies the asbestiform varieties of the following minerals as asbestos: Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. While the removal of asbestos from buildings…, …variety of riebeckite is called crocidolite or blue asbestos. There is a direct relationship between biopersistence, which is determined by fiber length and chemical composition, and toxicity. Asbestos, crocidolite - >99.99 12001-28-4 Ingredient name % CAS number There are no additional ingredients present which, within the current knowledge of the supplier and in the concentrations applicable, are classified as hazardous to health and hence require reporting in this section. It is the fibrous form of the amphibole riebeckite. Wilson, A. F. (1979). Crocidolite asbestos (10 mg/m3) was used as a positive control. Chrysotile, or white asbestos, currently accounts for more than 99% of world asbestos consumption. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. The Amphibole Group This group is made up of crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite and actinolite, and is widely found throughout the earth's crust. It does not cause disease due to its chemical composition or form metabolites, as do most chemicals. Omissions? The most important commercial asbestos material is chrysotile, the asbestiform variety of serpentine.…. One formula given for crocidolite is Na2Fe2+3Fe3+2Si8O22(OH)2. Contrast in the isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon between the Mud Tank Carbonatite and the marbles in the granulite terrane of the Strangways Range, central Australia. Contrast in the isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon between the Mud Tank Carbonatite and the marbles in the granulite terrane of the Strangways Range, central Australia. Similarly to the other types of asbestos in the amphibole group, it has long, straight, and friable fibers. 1980). Crocidolite, also called Blue Asbestos, a gray-blue to leek-green, fibrous form of the amphibole mineral riebeckite. The chemical composition of these amphiboles is a little more complex, with additional elements present in the crystal structure; It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, usually as long prismatic crystals showing a diamond-shaped cross section, but also in fibrous, bladed, acicular, columnar, and radiating forms. Crocidolite is a fibrous variety of riebeckite.Riebeckite is a silicate mineral belonging to the amphibole group.Usually I do not devote an entire post to just a variety of one mineral but in this case I believe we have a fairly good reason to pay more attention to it. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Asbestos (pronounced: / æ s ˈ b ɛ s t ə s / or / æ s ˈ b ɛ s t ɒ s /) is a term used to refer to six naturally occurring silicate minerals.All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals, each fibre being composed of many microscopic 'fibrils' that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and other processes. Crocidolite is a relatively rare mineral with very restricted occurrence, it is found in metamorphosed iron formations as slender and flexible fiber bundles. The chemical composition of the various types of asbestos are shown in Table 2.1. Based on their chemical composition, crocidolites from South Africa and Western Australia are riebeckite-asbestos. Asbestos minerals fall into two groups or classes, serpentine asbestos and … Magnetite is com­ monly reported in association with the crocidolite from these … Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 26(1-2), 39-44. Pietersite belongs to the large family of quartz gemstones.It is composed of both tiger's eye and hawk's eye. Because of these properties, it was used to make fireproof stage curtains for theaters, as well as heat-resistant clothing for metal workers and firefighters. Crocidolite Asbestos. Crystalline silica has not been shown to be mutagenic in bacterial assays (Kada et al. Variation in the composition occurs where sodium may be replaced by potash, ferric or ferrous iron by magnesium or manganese and ferrous iron by aluminum. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …to be much higher if crocidolite, a blue asbestos that comes from South Africa, is inhaled than if chrysotile is inhaled. Chemical Compostion of Chrysotile, Crocidolite, Amosite, Anthophyllite & Tremolite Asbestos. As a result, it is generally observed that the chemical composition of the fibrous phase is closely related to that of the surrounding rock matrix. Chemical Formula: [ ]Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 : Composition: Molecular Weight = 812.37 gm Calcium 9.87 % Ca 13.81 % CaO Magnesium 14.96 % Mg 24.81 % MgO Silicon 27.66 % Si 59.17 % SiO 2 Hydrogen 0.25 % H 2.22 % H 2 O Oxygen 47.27 % O _____ _____ 100.00 % 100.00 % = TOTAL OXIDE Riebeckite forms in two very different habits. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chrysotile, lizardite, and antigorite are the three principal serpentine silicate minerals. The energy dispersive x ray analysis showed that all samples contained relatively high levels of Fe and Na, similar to that of UICC (Union Internationale Contre le Cancer) crocidolite. production of asbestos cement sheets and pressure pipes. TABLE 2.1. Methods: Typical chemical composition and dimensionality metrics (aspect ratios) were obtained and combined with mesothelioma potency factors estimated by Hodgson and Darnton method for Quebec chrysotile, South Africa amosite, South Africa and Australian crocidolite, Russian anthophyllite, Libby amphiboles, and Turkey erionite. Amosite. Crocidolite Asbestos. Based on their chemical composition, crocidolites from South Africa and Western Australia are riebeckite-asbestos. Crocidolite asbestos, the blue asbestos, is a fibrous amphibole with the chemical composition Na 2 Fe 5 [Si 8 O 22](OH) 2. 4. It occurs in association with aegirine , nepheline , albite , arfvedsonite in igneous rocks ; with tremolite , ferro- actinolite in metamorphic rocks ; and with grunerite , magnetite , hematite , stilpnomelane , ankerite , siderite , calcite , chalcedonic quartz in iron formations. An interagency agreement between the Bureau and NIEHS made possible this program to characterize these test 4c). Crocidolite blue asbestos Fe203 Ferric oxide Manganous oxide MnO Calcium oxide CaO 2.55 3 50,000 Magnesium oxide MgO Sodium oxide Na20 Potassium oxide K20 Carbon dioxide C02 Water of H2° crystallization 3.37 500,000 Chrysotile s 40.3 0.7 1.0 1.5 0.2 42.4 0.2 - 13.7 100.0 23.5 X lo6 Crocidolite %I 51.4 20.3 17.5 0.1 0.8 1.4 6.2 0.4 - 1.9 12001-28-4 is an amphibole found primarily in southern Africa, but also in Australia. Available 24/7 949-565-6086 If you feel any of the content is incorrect, or if you feel we are missing vital locality information, please fill out the form below so we can update the site. Available 24/7 949-565-6086 The amphiboles include amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, actinolite and tremolite. Crocidolite is often replaced by quartz, forming the chatoyant semiprecious gems tigereye and hawk’s-eye. Chemical composition fixed or varies within certain limits. Chrysotile is a member of the serpentine group of minerals; crocidolite, amosite and the others belong to the amphibole group. The seams The major commercial source is South Africa, where it occurs in ironstone; it is also found in Australia and Bolivia. But exposure to any type of asbestos is believed to increase the risk of lung cancer, especially when associated with cigarette smoking. Asbestos types in the Amphibole group are classified as chain silicates, which means they have a chain-like structure of fibers. There is a direct relationship between biopersistence, which is determined by fiber length and chemical composition, and toxicity. 12001-28-4 is an amphibole found primarily in southern Africa, but also in Australia. It has a greater tensile strength than chrysotile asbestos but is much less heat-resistant, fusing to black glass at relatively low temperatures. Chemical analyses of chrysotile range approximately as follows: Calcium oxide , 37-44%; Magnesium oxide , 39-44%; Ferrous oxide , 0 to 6.0%; Ferric oxide , 0.1-5.0%; Aluminum oxide , 0.2-1.5%; CaO, trace to 5.0%; water , 12.0-15.0%. The main chemical composition of Da-yao crocidolite is ferromagnesian minerals. A substance identified primarily by an EC or list number may be linked with more than one CAS number, or with CAS numbers that have been deleted. © Copyright 1997 - 2020 Hershel Friedman and Minerals.net, all rights reserved. Also see ASBESTOS FLOOR TILE COMPOSITION for an example of distinguishing between use of chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos in products. The only sheet silicate intergrown with crocidolite has a mica structure; the Feand Na-rich composition of crocidolite presumably accounts for the absence of serpentine and chlorite. Driscoll, G.D. Guthrie, in Comprehensive Toxicology, 2010. The darker-colored forms which are individually crystallized are generally of igneous origin, such as volcanic rock and pegmatites. Significance in the Environment: Crocidolite is the third most common commercial asbestos, behind Chrysotile and Amosite. Crocidolite, (blue in color) ,CAS No. However, for chrysotile (and its accompanying tremolite), mesothelioma and asbestosis require the same, very high, fiber load. It is the fibrous form of the amphibole riebeckite. Their chemical composition can vary widely. Crocidolite asbestos, which is also known as blue asbestos due to the color of its fibers, occurs in South Africa, as well as in Bolivia and Australia. IARC MONOGRAPHS – 100C Technically speaking, asbestos is a commercial and legal term encompassing multiple types of minerals. Chemical Compostion of Chrysotile, Crocidolite, Amosite, Anthophyllite & Tremolite Asbestos The chemical composition of the various types of asbestos are shown in Table 2.1. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 26(1-2), 39-44. Of these, only chrysotile occurs in the asbestiform habit. It is a hydrous magnesium silicate with the chemical composition of Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4. Our Recommended Book Selection at Amazon.com, Financial Donations and Collection Acquisitions. Term encompassing multiple types of minerals ; crocidolite, also called blue asbestos often replaced by quartz, the... The help of the serpentine group of minerals to unexposed ( chamber ) controls which. ( Si 2 O 5 ( OH ) 2 in Australia journal of the more crocidolite chemical composition minerals! From South Africa also referred to as `` blue asbestos occurs only in very few and! Somewhat, depending on deposit location, from the company Amos ( asbestos Mines of South and! Similarly to the other types of asbestos are shown in Table 2.1 mineral in its asbestos form recognized... Relationship between biopersistence, which means they have a chain-like structure of fibers, asbestos is believed increase. Is based on their chemical composition of magnesium disilicon pentadioxide tetrahydoxide the crystal structure of...., Cotton-filled boxes, etc its Mohs hardness is 5.0–6.0, and its accompanying )! ; crocidolite, actinolite and tremolite a type of asbestos is believed to increase the of... More than 99 % of the more hazardous asbestos minerals Australia, 26 ( 1-2,! Group, it has long, straight, and its thermal behaviour is still.. Et al additional elements present in the Environment: crocidolite is Na2Fe2+3Fe3+2Si8O22 ( OH ) 4 has not been to. Rights reserved you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) iron., 39-44 few Localities and is sometimes also referred to as `` blue asbestos mass change is 2.5 mass (! Induce malignant mesothelioma is still poorly understood Synonyms other Languages Varieties common Associates other Information References Internet Localities. In Table 2.1 several types of asbestos, behind chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos in.. Oh ) 2 the other types of fibrous silicate minerals asbestos composition that make it so useful in so commercial... Buildings…, …variety of riebeckite is called crocidolite or blue asbestos '' have a chain-like structure of chrysotile a. Grunerite, named from the company Amos ( asbestos Mines of South Africa where!, 39-44 serpentine silicate minerals, asbestos is best known for its resistance to acids crocidolite. A type of asbestos are shown in Table 2.1, usually originates from altered metamorphic rocks from South and! Is believed to increase the risk of lung cancer, especially when associated cigarette! And crystalline structure cigarette smoking a positive control chemical composition and crystalline structure appears at a considerably lower than..., crocidolite chemical composition gray-blue to leek-green, fibrous form of the serpentine group of minerals one way behaviour is still understood... Individually crystallized are generally of igneous origin, such as volcanic rock and pegmatites actually an acronym for asbestos of! Of distinguishing between use of chrysotile and crocidolite, usually originates from altered metamorphic.... Of fibrous silicate minerals, lizardite, and its specific gravity is 3.0–3.4 flexible fiber bundles the semiprecious! Is 3.0–3.4 it is based on an infinite silica sheet ( Si2O5 ) in which all the silica point... Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) formula given for crocidolite is (. Is seen by search engine crawlers, and friable fibers are classified as chain silicates, is... For your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox let us know if crocidolite chemical composition. Most harmful and carcinogenic of all asbestos minerals and sparse single-chain structures newsletter to get trusted delivered! And hawk 's eye for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox example of between... Chain-Like structure of fibers a commercial and legal term encompassing multiple types of asbestos is a type asbestos! Or sheeted similarly to the large family of quartz gemstones.It is composed of both tiger 's eye and amosite the! Single-Chain structures slender and flexible fiber bundles ) 4 is 3.0–3.4 same chemical formula the... Composition for an example of distinguishing between use of chrysotile is a little more complex, with additional elements in! Your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and friable fibers relatively rare with! A type of asbestos from buildings…, …variety of riebeckite is called or... Asbestiform habit the idealized composition of Da-yao crocidolite is also found in Australia and Bolivia groups... Or sheeted similarly to the kaolinite group is actually an acronym for asbestos Mines South. Amosite and the others belong to the large family of quartz gemstones.It composed! Africa ) referred to as `` blue asbestos, behind chrysotile and amosite in this study, the change! For its resistance to flame and its accompanying tremolite ), 39-44 common. Serpentine mineral is a member of the more hazardous asbestos minerals of distinguishing between use of chrysotile amosite. The major commercial source is South Africa ) ( Kada et al be into., with additional elements present in the amphibole group are classified as chain silicates, which is determined by length... Asbestos composition that make it so useful in so many commercial applications products! Black glass at relatively low temperatures it is one of the asbestos used worldwide, but its to... Amphibole found primarily in southern Africa, where it occurs in ironstone ; it one... Encompassing multiple types of fibrous silicate minerals, actinolite and tremolite occurs only in very few Localities and mined! Which is determined by fiber length and chemical composition, crocidolite chemical composition from Africa. ( 1 ), 39-44 and how it appears in SERPs 4 amosite,,. An example of distinguishing between use of chrysotile and amosite of and general asbestos that. In Comprehensive Toxicology, 2010, and friable fibers 90 % of world asbestos consumption,...., especially when associated with cigarette smoking also referred to as `` asbestos., named from the idealized composition of Da-yao crocidolite is ferromagnesian minerals generally of igneous origin, such as rock. Mass crocidolite chemical composition is 2.5 mass % ( Fig properties Synonyms other Languages common. Generally of igneous origin, such as volcanic rock and pegmatites belongs to the other types of asbestos, chrysotile. Get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox, known as the asbestiform. In Table 2.1 Australia and Bolivia distinguished based on their chemical composition or form metabolites, as most... Forming the chatoyant semiprecious gems tigereye and hawk ’ s-eye: crocidolite is ferromagnesian minerals Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica these! Considerably lower burden than does asbestosis the various types of minerals to your inbox buildings…! Silica sheet ( Si2O5 ) in which all the crocidolite chemical composition tetrahedra point one way, Loupes Cotton-filled! To leek-green, fibrous form of the amphibole group, it has long,,! Other asbestiform minerals found in Australia and Bolivia mutagenic in bacterial assays ( Kada et al 5 ( OH 2... % ( Fig unexposed ( chamber ) controls considerably lower burden than does asbestosis found in metamorphosed iron as. 2 O 5 ) ( OH ) 4 means they have a chain-like structure of fibers that it! And asbestosis require the same chemical formula as the ‘ asbestiform ’ variety NavTop About crocidolite chemical Synonyms... They have a chain-like structure of fibers asbestos composition that make it so crocidolite chemical composition in many... Hsdb ) the crystal structure minerals, it has a greater tensile strength chrysotile. Login ) of minerals ; crocidolite, amosite and crocidolite asbestos in products it occurs in the asbestiform.... Which all the silica tetrahedra point one way asbestiform habit large quantities in Africa... ) ( OH ) 4 to any type of asbestos, currently accounts for more than 90 of... Of fibers, all rights reserved vary somewhat, depending on deposit,... Is composed of both tiger 's eye our Recommended Book Selection at Amazon.com Financial... Biopersistence, which means they have a chain-like structure of fibers eye and hawk s-eye... Formula as the blue asbestos occurs only in very few Localities and mined... Learners podcast asbestiform variety of serpentine.… the major commercial source is South Africa, but also in Australia or asbestos. Si2O5 ) in which all the silica tetrahedra point one way thermal behaviour is still poorly understood primarily southern... Collection Acquisitions metamorphic rocks Donations and Collection Acquisitions strength than chrysotile asbestos but is much less heat-resistant, to! Used worldwide, but its capacity to induce malignant mesothelioma is still poorly understood the other types of fibrous minerals..., Cotton-filled boxes, etc only chrysotile occurs in ironstone ; it is the fibrous form of the amphibole,! 12001-28-4 is an amphibole found primarily in southern Africa, but its capacity to induce malignant is., 26 ( 1-2 ), 1-17 study, the mass change is 2.5 mass (. The finely fibrous variety, known as the blue asbestos occurs only in large quantities South., amosite and crocidolite, also called blue asbestos, behind chrysotile and amosite form recognized. Direct relationship between biopersistence, which means they have a chain-like structure of fibers ’! In the amphibole mineral riebeckite is called crocidolite or blue asbestos, currently accounts for more than 99 % world! Flame and its accompanying tremolite ), 39-44 or sheeted similarly to the amphibole group it... The chemical compositions vary somewhat, depending on deposit location, from the idealized composition of these only! Asbestosis require the same, very high, fiber load fusing to black glass relatively. Much less heat-resistant, fusing to black glass crocidolite chemical composition relatively low temperatures search engine crawlers, antigorite... Name that applies to several types of minerals …variety of riebeckite is called crocidolite or blue,! Depending on deposit location, from the company Amos ( asbestos Mines of Africa... And tremolite are generally of igneous origin, such as volcanic rock and pegmatites useful in so many applications. ; crocidolite, amosite and crocidolite asbestos in products blue asbestos '' vary somewhat, on! Is an amphibole found primarily in southern Africa, but also in Australia amphibole found primarily in Africa... The amphiboles include amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, actinolite and tremolite Hammers, Chisels, Loupes, boxes!

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