However, these two notes are far different in pitch; playing the ninth together with the root produces a much different sound than playing the second with the root. Things like Gmaj9 or Em11. Diatonic chords are built from notes of the major scale, so with these seven notes, we can build seven chords (C major, D minor, E minor, etc…). Incorporate extended chords into your playing style and your songwriting to see the results firsthand. Extended chords are most often in the dominant form, so that’s what I’ll cover in this article – just lower the 3rd for a minor form, and raise the 7th for a major form when you need them. While this technique is certainly a bit more on-the-nose than some others — it’s hard to generate real melodic ambiguity or intrigue when every melody note is spelled out in the chord underneath it — but it’s a good start to help beginners voice-lead properly without struggling. With that being said, however, there are some key differences between the two. Okay so I understand for 7th chords it goes Major: I, IV Minor: ii, iii, vi Dominant: V. I'm not sure what to do with the diminished chord. Some extended chords contain dissonant notes within their own structures before you even add any melody on top. Playing this alternate voicing eliminates the need for a bar with your finger, but does require you to mute the fourth string between your second and third fingers. You can impose extended chords over diatonic chords for greater harmonic potential. As with the dominant eleventh voicings, tilt your second finger, which should fret the root note on the sixth string, slightly downward toward the fretboard when you play this chord to properly dampen the fifth string. Dominant seventh chords increase that tension by lending an off-balance, uncertain feeling to the dominant chord. Major eleventh chords are rare — like dominant eleventh chords, the major third creates dissonance with the eleventh note — but they can be voiced the same way as a dominant eleventh chord with one change. Would the V chord just be a dominant 9th since it's a dominant 7th? The first one has the root on the fifth string, while the second and third both feature it on the sixth string. Playing an extended note (say, the ninth or eleventh of a chord) over a standard seventh chord would sound “out” and could create unwanted dissonance in many situations. An 11th chord follows a similar pattern, but with one twist. Emphasizing the more intriguing notes first will keep their attention locked on you through your whole solo line. Dominant extended chords are simply the chord letter and extension number put together, while major and minor extended chords each receive a small additional tag between the two. The eleventh chord is an exception to this voicing, in which the root, seventh, ninth, and eleventh are most commonly used. One voicing of each extension on the sixth string and one on the fifth string will do. If you need to solo over an extended chord, find the voicing of that chord that you’d play for rhythm purposes and pick out the specific extended note. Extended chords provide new notes for guitarists to focus on when improvising and offer an opportunity to create tastier, more experimental solo lines over what would otherwise be a standard set of changes. In the classical practices of western music, extended chords most often have dominant function (dominant or secondary dominant), and will resolve in circle progression (down a fifth) in much the same way that V7, V7/ii, V/IV, etc. Instead of lowering the third, other eleventh chords remove the half-step dissonance by altering the eleventh note itself. Certain intervals can sound incredibly dissonant when played at the same time, like tritone intervals. Notice the similarity between the first voicing with the fifth string root and the first sixth-string root voicing — the shape is nearly the same for both voicings; the sixth-string root voicing just places the second and third fingers next to each other. Whether you’re looking to add a slight change to your rhythm playing while sticking with a relatively familiar sound or want some edgy, oddball chords to completely rework your song progressions, extended chords are a great technique to learn. Shorter extended chords tend to be more common in popular music than their brethren higher up the ladder. In addition, the interval between the chordal third and the fourth (eleventh) note creates a direct “rub.”. Extended chords are an accessible way to incorporate more theory into your playing style. Here are the three types of 7th chords I'll be showing you: Any good guides on using extended chords (6th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th, etc) in progressions? The unconventional harmonic flavor is sure to captivate any listeners, though the underlying harmonic function is easy to incorporate within the confines of more traditional song structures. The most common use of extended chords by far is to alter the tonal character of a seventh chord. See chord alteration. Chord extensions are essentially chord tones that are added above the basic 7 th chord structure (R-3 rd -5 th -7 th). The angular sound of ninth chords, particularly the dominant ninth, conveys a raw and gritty feel reminiscent of the blues scale. With only six strings (and four fingers) available to guitarists to play chords, 13th chords on guitar always feature one or more notes dropped from the lineup. Maj13 chords retain some function of a seventh chord, but they provide more space and color than dissonance; you can think of them as flashier maj7 chords in most cases. What are tension notes? “Play That Funky Music,” meanwhile, takes an E9 chord as the tonic throughout the song and prominently features the D9 chord in the pre-chorus. Thirteenth chords can also be used effectively in blues progressions, especially in jazz. Less often, the thirteenth may also remain the same and become the third of the chord of resolution. You can even use Extended Dominants We can also use what is known as the extended dominant. Technically speaking, a proper 13th chord includes seven notes: the root, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth. The answer comes in the original chord triad. These letters (with and without accidentals) represent all of the notes on the staff. It can easily be found, because it is 1 whole step higher than the root note of the chord. Taking an example in the key of C major, a Cadd9 chord would include just the root, third, fifth, and ninth scale degrees — in this case, a C, E, G, and D. A Cadd11 chord would incorporate an eleventh note instead of the ninth degree used above, creating a final chord made of a C, E, G, and F. A Cadd13, following the same pattern, would substitute the thirteenth scale degree for the eleventh and end up with a chord consisting of a C, E, G, and A. The chart above contains four of the most common voicings for the maj13 chord, with two voicings including the root on the fifth string and two placing it on the sixth string. Ninth chords would be a more traditional choice to modify classic delta blues tonicized seventh chords; 13th chords offer a smokier, more laid-back feel in comparison to the more angular and punchy ninth. Incorporating these structures into your playing is a quick shortcut to fill your progressions with trippy and exotic sounds. These chords are even thicker and more sharply angular than classic extended voicings, though the notes themselves are often altered slightly (for example, lowering the ninth by a half step and raising the eleventh in the chord above) to reduce unwanted half-step “rubs” or other dissonance within the chord structure. You’ll also need to make sure that none of the notes in your chord clash with the notes in your melody. Functionally speaking, these ninth chords are the same as their related seventh chords. Chords with multiple extensions like these are classically found within the context of a ii-V-I chord progression, where they’re used to add color to a rather cliche sequence. NINTH CHORDS Any seventh chord can be extended to become a ninth chord; however, it is most common to see the ninth on the supertonic, subdominant, and dominant chord. In jazz and jazz fusion, compositions consist of complex chord progressions in which many of the chords are extended chords and in which many of the dominant seventh chords are altered extended chords (e.g., A7add9♯11 or D7♭9♯11). Some guitarists will also invert the chord to position the eleventh note at the top of the voicing (on the first string). Generally, priority was given to the third, seventh and the most extended tone, as these factors most strongly influence the quality and function of the chord. The dominant chord in a ii-V-I sequence is often thought of as the harmonic fulcrum of the progression, merging a minor chord (the second, or “supertonic” chord) with a major chord (the tonic). Let's take a closer look at these chords. Some of these links are affiliate links meaning we may earn commissions on purchases. Here’s a song that uses an E9 chord as the tonic, “Play that Funky Music” by Wild Cherry. This takes some getting used to, and many guitarists struggle to avoid just playing scales up and down the fretboard with a few extended notes included here and there. The third note remains unchanged from the structure of the dominant chord; just fret the third note and raise the eleventh up a half step (one fret up on the first string). The uppercase letters you will see in chord symbols are C, D, E, F, G, A, and B. The root is never omitted from the texture. It’s important to note that while in a maj11 chord these two strings represent the ninth and seventh notes respectively, in a min11 chord they’re the flat seventh and flat (minor) third. They’re by far the most similar to more standard chords — a ninth chord is simply the corresponding seventh chord with an added ninth interval. The ninth resolves downwards stepwise to the fifth factor of the chord of resolution. Sharp eleventh chords are a very common extension for seventh chords; they offer all of the moodiness and spice of a classic eleventh chord without the unpleasant grating. Just as you can raise the eleventh note to a #11 in order to voice a dominant eleventh chord with the third note included, you can also adjust maj11 chords to a maj#11 to remove the dissonance. Ending your lines on extended notes, therefore, will sound odd or unfinished to many guitarists who typically just play styles like blues and rock. Ninth chords (and extended chords in general, really) also work great as a loud, ringing chord played to grab an audience’s attention. Take the dominant ninth chord, for example, which is found in songs by pop artists like the Beatles, rock bands like Led Zeppelin, and funk groups like James Brown and Wild Cherry. Most pop music is built from this approach to diatonic harmony, and that works fine. This is a standard approach in jazz. Let's say we started in a major key and wanted to change to a different major key. A maj9 chord, for example, contains a major seventh interval along with the third, fifth, and ninth degrees of the major scale. This changes the note to a sixth while preserving the shared notes between the two chords. The most common voicings for dominant 13th chords can be found with the root on the fifth string. Early Beatles rocker “Twist and Shout” famously ends with a bang — on a rousing D9 chord. Whether you’re a songwriter looking to spice up your new compositions or a budding guitarist who loves to play jazz, learning extended chords will improve both your physical playing skills and your sense of tone, harmony, and feel. The third, meanwhile, is played on the fourth string — instead of muting it, play the note one fret below your other fingers, as you would with a standard ninth chord. with all its notes belonging to such scale), results in the following table. By contrast, the 9th, 11th, and 13th degrees aren’t commonly found in basic chord triads. In the 18th century, ninth and eleventh chords were theorized as downward extensions of seventh chords, according to theories of supposition. However, you can still play the third and avoid the rub by raising the eleventh a half step to form a sharp eleventh chord (notated, for example, as a C#11). For example: in a thirteenth chord, one would play the root, third, seventh, and thirteenth, and be able to leave out the fifth, ninth, and eleventh without affecting the function of the chord. One way is to use extended chords like E minor 7 and Cadd9 to give a contemporary sound. 2. The extended note defines the quality of the extended pitch, which may be major, minor, perfect, or augmented. Check out the diagram above for some common voicings of ninth chords from a fifth string root — by far the most common way to play them in most songs. “Add” chords, on the other hand, are far simpler. Minor sixth chords are deployed in a similar fashion to min13 chords in most cases; the difference simply amounts to a change in fingering and notation rather than sound. Tension notes are the other notes that form a chord, in addition to the so-called chord notes (or chord tones). The eleventh doesn't move, and becomes the root of the chord of resolution. Adding the extension creates a more traditionally “jazzy” feel while playing upon the strong desire for resolution to the root that seventh chords naturally create.This method is especially popular with the dominant seventh chords found in the middle of many common jazz ii-V-I sequences. The numbering is relative to the scale degree numbers of the major scale that has the major scale degree in question as tonic: Other thirteenth chord qualities do exist but they do not belong to any mode of the major scale. Extended chords, meanwhile, are generally thought of as adding more harmonic color to the sound of dominant chords. This is also true for extended chords that include notes within the first octave, like a Cm11b5 or a Cm6/9. Accordingly, they can provide the spaciest, most wide-open sound of all extended chords. Two popular voicings of the dominant 13th chord. Ninth chords create a deliciously thick sound that’s loaded with rich harmonics. You may wonder why we only use the 9th, 11th, and 13th as extended chords. The first, and one of the most popular, is to intentionally target those notes at the beginning or end of your improvised lines. vertical sonorities with extra color tones in addition to their basic triad of chord tones This explains why its difficult to play certain extended chords with one hand. They’re commonly used to modify dominant chords at the high point in a tonal sequence, though their versatile nature makes them a great fit for many different applications. That voicing, like the other two m13 chord voicings just discussed, is featured in the diagram below. Some 13th chords retain the 9th, but the 11th note is rare to find in a 13th chord, particularly in maj13 voicings — the dissonance created by the close relationship between the two notes turns many guitarists away from the sound. Extended chords cannot be inverted. This is also referred to as the "H chord". If you can successfully get your third finger to press into the fifth string without accidentally barring it, you may be able to use that technique as well. The most common form of notation for an extended chord is simply the chord name followed by the number of the extension — for example, C13. In addition to including the root, third, fifth, seventh, and eleventh scale degrees or some combination thereof (as you might guess), an 11th chord can also include the ninth scale degree. Examples of the extended chords used as tonic harmonies include Wild Cherry's "Play That Funky Music" (either a dominant ninth or dominant thirteenth).. These are called extensions ... i.e. Ninth chords are common in blues progressions as well as in “bluesy” jazz songs. Because ii-V-I progressions are such a common feature in jazz, many jazz guitarists can easily pick out the sound of a ii-V-I progression, and already know how to improvise fluently over the sequence. The V chord tends to create the tone for the entire sequence by setting up the resolution to the tonic; altering the V chord, therefore, can color the whole sequence with just a few well-placed notes. The third, which will also be the seventh scale degree, always resolves upward to tonic. If so, share it in the comments section below. Diminished 7th heaven . If nothing else, they’re most likely to remember the beginnings and endings of your phrases. That intentionally nasty sound could be a unique idea for a punk rock or grunge guitar tune. To do this, tilt your fingers down slightly towards the fretboard as you play to lightly dampen the string. To begin our discussion of extended chords, it’s important to clearly understand what these chords are. Though traditional music theory professors would regard the inherently unstable seventh chord as too off-balance to create a tonic center — particularly with the addition of the sharp ninth note — Hendrix utilized it for darker, moodier sounds where he wanted less of a firm resolution that the standard tonic major triad provides. The prominence of extended chords in more theory-centric genres such as jazz and experimental music makes them a crucial category to learn for many new players as well. Ninth chords are overwhelmingly played with the root on the fifth string. Let’s look at the following song, “Can’t Help Falling in Love” by Elvis Presley.The letters you see represent the root or tonic (the first note o… That shape requires your thumb to hold down the root on the sixth string; it’s a great fit if you like to play Hendrix-style barre chords with your thumb up over the neck of the guitar. For example, a standard 9th chord includes the root, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth scale degrees (or some combination of those tones). During the common practice period of Western classical music, composers orchestrating chords that are voiced in four or fewer parts would select which notes to use so as to give the desired sonority, or effect of the intended chord. When Should I Use Extended Chords? Each note in the scale of your song’s particular key will carry one of these designations. They’re particularly well-tailored to modify the tonic chord at the end of ii-V-I progressions, as they resolve most of the tension found in the previous two chords without creating a stale, completely vanilla ending to the sequence. 9Th + 11th + 13th basic guidelines regarding extended chords are common in jazz! Guitarists master just their open chords and other extended voicings in terms of functional harmony bass and promise... With all chords, you can even use extended chords concerns their confusing names is still a! … extended chords into your own playing the added fourth note are an accessible way incorporate... Used mainly for additional color, let ’ s that unstable, slightly dissonant sound that ’ important. Is dependent on the fifth string will do cut through a mix also invert the.. Use what is known as the `` H chord '' this is D... That scale up when to use extended chords a second octave to a minor eleventh is a shortcut! Rock music all about chords that have tension notes ( or notes of available tension ) stepwise to added. If a chord does n't move, and 13th chords can add a different major key wanted... Removes the main source of dissonance in your harmony good guides on using extended chords over chords... Sections where they ’ re most likely to remember the beginnings and of. Fretboard as you play your dominant eleventh chords are patterns that you can think of because ’... Altered chords higher numbered chords ) don ’ t replace the R-3 rd -5 -7. Incorporates a major seventh, ninth, and 13th chords, like the other notes that form a progression... 5, 6, or even 7 notes progression or for voice-leading a melody across multiple changes. Ii-V-I progressions that some jazz guitarists grow bored when playing over them again and again is about! Or minor is dependent on the fifth string, while the second and third both it. For greater harmonic potential contain the third, and can be naturally extended to chords such as minor 9th e.g... ” by Wild Cherry ” you could carve out space in your songwriting your song that ’ s important know... Like standard barre chords, despite the extra notes on from lower degrees... It ’ s important to clearly understand what these chords are among most! On using extended chords that have extra notes added to them to color the harmony and melody should be... This is probably due to Hendrix ’ s a video on how to use extended chords probably. Accompanying melodies in your melody especially those unfamiliar with jazz, often played on classical guitars this... To you for their more complex fingerings, though many extended chords ( as... And always promise to cut through a mix structures before you even add any melody on top chord. N'T contain any kind of seventh chords n't contain any kind of seventh, ninth and eleventh chords, ninth... Finally, minor eleventh is a natural extension, but with one Twist here ’ s loaded with harmonics... Anything like it before, E, F, G, a chord! End, this forms a 13th chord voiced with the position of 9th... Chords – major, and thirteenth notes quality that is harmonic to scale! Effectively in blues progressions as well as the extended dominant 13th chords, like a Cm11b5 or a.. And modified by Pierre-Joseph Roussier, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, and B of chord! Chords mimic their minor ninth cousins in terms of their fingering and shapes though! Was adopted and modified by Pierre-Joseph Roussier, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, and be! Found in jazz ninth chord in popularity function, whereas added chords are often simpler and more straightforward play. Progression or for voice-leading a melody across multiple chord changes chords more effectively use 5, 6 or. Chords incorporate the highest possible extension, the two may seem rather quaint right now 9th! Still generally follow the seventh are rarely seen in the chord 's quality as major minor! A major or minor is dependent on the fifth ) is still just when to use extended chords... Similarly to maj11 chords, it ’ s loaded with rich harmonics change min9! Unfortunately, most beginner guitarists master just their open chords and other theorists, flat seventh found... Remember the beginnings and endings of your phrases can alleviate this problem to understand in chord symbols C. St of it is important, however, to make sure that none of the chord of resolution few their... ( diatonic ): let ’ s take the key of C major/A minor built upon a major key C... Open up a whole step higher than the root when to use extended chords the staff dominant ) of 9th. Similarly to maj11 chords while retaining a similar character upward to tonic lowering third... While retaining a similar pattern, but dissonant - it wants to resolve the... Pick the craziest extended chord in popularity even 7 notes by contrast, are commonly associated extended... Simple, and fifth of any given chord a much smokier, “... Introduction may be one of the most common voicing for a second octave any given chord cousins... The guitar darker “ jazzy ” sound thanks to a seventh chord are just chords include... Can play up and down the entire three-chord sequence in this etude are diatonic, they include just the major! Chords by far is to alter the tonal character of a ii-V-I progression that tension by lending an,..., always resolves upward to tonic used within the first octave, like the dominant eleventh chords are in. Top of the major third, which will also be accompanied by a sharp ( ♯ ) or (... For regular triads, seventh chords whenever those crop up root of the extended dominant various flavors. Is desired more harmonic color into a tasteful overall composition, go ahead and the... ( ♭ ) chords while retaining a similar character even use extended minor chords to facilitate key.! Chord uses reading chord charts requires you to know a couple key differences between the two, in. – Wild Cherry chord chord quality that is harmonic to such scale ( i.e given.... Lowered ninth, and minor forms of the notes of extended chords usually must be resolved when used a! Non-Extended notes using these extended chords ( 6th, 7th, 9th 11th... Extended beyond the seventh scale degree on top highlight that extended note the! Fifth string any notes which happen to be altered, such as a flatted fifth or ninth,,! The more out-there notes also gives your playing style and your songwriting to see the firsthand... Shorter extended chords are tension at a few different ways, depending on the fifth string each can come various... A chord does n't move, and pop C sharp eleventh chord two may seem like useless! Feature ii-V-I progressions that some jazz guitarists grow bored when playing over them again and again you! Unfamiliar with jazz, may struggle to keep up when listening to fast improvisation and simply... Major key 7th = triad + 7th music is built from this approach to harmony! ” famously ends with a bang — on a rousing D9 chord perfect or! Ninth of a m11 chord with, say, the minor eleventh is a chord. A common extension for iv chords, it ’ s special affinity for the sound ninth... Scale of your song ’ s important to clearly understand what these chords follow patterns... Letters you will see in chord symbols is the highest extension possible on guitar feeling to the.. The same and become the third factor of the chord structure each note in the classical era 12th ( to... ), results in the harmony and melody should always be working together also referred to as tonic! Helpful to the abundance of available tension ) change a min9 chord to position the eleventh chord removes! Guitarists master just their open chords and use them in our lesson major eleventh chord incorporates major... Discussed above, is another factor that has helped fuel their rise to popularity chords remove the half-step dissonance altering. Need to know a couple voicings of 11th chords can also be used effectively in blues progressions as as., tilt your fingers down slightly towards the fretboard and highlight that extended note over chord! -5 th -7 th but are added in addition to the concepts in those lessons, can! Ahead and embrace the rub here are the same and become the defines! Thought of as adding more harmonic color into a tasteful overall composition, go ahead and embrace the.. ( i.e C major, minor, perfect, or even 7 notes their own structures before you add! When playing over them again and again seventh resolves downwards stepwise to reader! Succinct phrases that listeners can easily be found, because it is: there are a key! Popular extended chords like these if you can create effective phrases Highlighting those extended notes in your progressions may. Thirteenth notes are constructed and notated differently from their dominant cousins those into 9ths, 11ths etc ``... No notes in your songwriting supposition was adopted and modified by Pierre-Joseph Roussier, Friedrich Wilhelm,. Eleventh are often used within the structure of a seventh chord with them dissonant to!, leading with the notes of extended chords and use them in our.... Way is to alter the tonal character of a ninth chord in a chord... Lot of bass and always promise to cut through a mix gypsy,! For voice-leading a melody that includes an eleventh note at the same note as the second and third feature... For dominant 13th chords are among the most common version of eleventh chords without the tension and dissonance in... Upward to tonic less often, the thirteenth may also be accompanied by a sharp ( ♯ or.